References cited on this website include the following:

Aiken, L. R. (2000). Psychological Testing and Assessment (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Akey, J. M.  (2009).  Constructing genomic maps of positive selection in humans:  Where do we go from here?  Genome Research, 19(5), 711-722.

Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Atkinson, R. L., Atkinson, R. C., Smith, E. E., Bem, D. J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology (13th ed.). Ft. Worth: Harcourt College Publishers.

Baker, J. L., Rotimi, C. M., & Shriner, D.  (2017).  Human ancestry correlates with language and reveals that race is not an objective genomic classifier.  Scientific Reports, 7, 1572. 

Baker, T. B., McFall, R. M., & Shoham, V. (2009). Current status and future prospects of clinical psychology: Toward a scientifically principled approach to mental and behavioral health care. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(2), 67-103.

Bartholomew, D. J., Deary, I. J., & Lawn, M.  (2009).  A new lease of life for Thompson’s bonds model of intelligence.  Psychological Review, 116, 567-79.

Bauer, L.  (2019).  Does Head Start work?  The debate over the Head Start Impact Study, explained.  Downloaded July 27, 2021 from:  

Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. L.  (1966).  The Social Construction of Reality:  A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge.  New York:  Doubleday

Berliner, L. & Conte, J. R. (1990). The process of victimization: The victim’s perspective. Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 14(1), 29-40.

Bishop, E. T., Hopkins, B., Obiofuma, C., & Owusu. F.  (2020).  Racial disparities in the Massachusetts criminal justice system.  Retrieved July 20, 2021 from  

Blumenbach, J. F. (1795). On the natural variety of mankind, third ed. (T. Bendyshe, Trans.). In J. F. Blumenbach & T. Bendyshe (Trans.), The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (pp. 145–276). Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green. 

Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Bornstein, R. F. (2003). Psychodynamic models of personality. In T. Millon & M. J. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 117-134). New York: Wiley.

Bowen, W. G. & Bok, D.  (1998).  The shape of the river:  Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions.  Princeton, N. J.:  Princeton Univ. Press.

Brace, C. L.  (2005).  Race is a four-letter word.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press. 

Brewerton, T., Dansky, B., Kilpatrick, D., & O’Neil, P. (1999). Bulimia nervosa, PTSD, and forgetting: Results of a national women’s survey. In L. Williams & V. Banyard (Eds.), Trauma and Memory (pp. 127-133). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cameron, C. (1996). Comparing amnesiac and nonamnesiac survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study. In K. Pedzek & W. P. Banks (Eds.), The Recovered Memory/False Memory Debate (pp. 41-68). San Diego: Academic Press.

Carnap, R. (1936). Testability and meaning. Philosophy of Science, 3, 419-471.

Carnap, R. (1956). The methodological character of theoretical concepts. In H. Feigl & M. Scriven (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (Vol. 1, pp. 38-76). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Cartwright, S. A.  (1851).  Report on the diseases and physiological peculiarities of the Negro Race.  New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, 7, 692-93. 

Cash-Padgett, T., & Jaaro-Peled, H.  (2013).  DISC-1 mouse models as a tool to decipher gene-environment interactions in psychiatric disorders.  Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 03 Setember, 2013. 

Ceci, S. J.  (1996).  On intelligence:  A bioecological treatise on intellectual development.  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard Univ. Press. 

Charney, E.  (2012).  Behavior genetics and postgenomics.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(5), 331-358.  See also pp. 359-410.

Cheit, R. (2005). The Recovered Memory Project. Retrieved August 15, 2010, from

Choen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (1999). Psychological Testing and Assessment (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Clifton, J. D. W.  (2020).  Managing validity versus reliability trade-offs in scale-building decisions.  Psychological Methods, 25(3), 259-270.

Coleman, A.  (1972).  ‘Scientific’ racism and the evidence on race and intelligence.  Race and Class, 14(2), 137-153

Connellan, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Batki, A., & Ahluwalia, J. (2000). Sex differences in human neonatal social perception. Infant Behavior and Development, 23, 113–118.

Conte, J. R., Wolf, S. & Smith, T. (1989). What sexual offenders tell us about prevention strategies. Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 13(2), 293-301.

Cronbach, L.  (1969).  Heredity, environment, and educational policy.  Harvard Educational Review, 39(2), 338-347.

Dalenberg, C. (1996). Accuracy, timing and circumstances of disclosure in therapy of recovered and continuous memories. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24, 229-275.

Dalenberg, C. (2006). Recovered memory and the Daubert criteria: Recovered memory as professionally tested, peer reviewed and accepted in the relevant community. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 7, 274-310.

Dallem, S. J. (2001). Science or propoganda? An examination of Rind, Tromovitch and Bauserman (1998). Journal of Sexual Abuse, 9, 109-134.

Dallem, S. J., Gleaves, D. H., Cepeda-Benito, A., Silberg, J. L., Kraemer, H. C., Spiegel, D., (2001). The effects of child sexual abuse: Comment on Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman, 1998). Psychological Bulletin, 127(6), 715-733.

de Gruijter, J. M., Lao, O., Vermeulen, M., et al.  (2011).  Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin-color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing.  Investig. Genet, 2(1). 24. 

De Haan, M., and Leuven, E.  (2020).    Head Start and the distribution of long term education and labor market outcomes.  Journal of Labor Economics, 38(3), 727-765.

della Femina, D., Yeagar, C. A., & Lewis, D. O. (1990). Child abuse: Adolescent records vs. adult recall. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 227-231.

Deming, D.  (2009).  Early childhood intervention and life-cycle skill development:  Evidence from Head Start.  American Economic Journal:  Applied Economics, 1(3), 111-134. 

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2005). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2017). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Derrida, J. (1988). Limited, Inc., Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Devlin, B., Fienberg, S. E., Resnick, D. P., and Roeder, K. (Eds.). (1997).  Intelligence, genes and success:  Scientists respond to the Bell Curve.  New York:  Springer-Verlag.

Dickens, W. T., Kane, T. J. and Schultze, C. L.  (1994).  Does “The Bell Curve” ring true?  A closer look at a grim portrait of American society.  The Brookings Review, 13(3), 18-23.

Dorado, J. (1999). Remembering incest. In L. Williams & V. Banyard (Eds.). Trauma and Memory (pp. 93-111). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Duarte, J. L., Crawford, J. T., Haidt, J., Jussim, L., & Tetlock, P. E. (2015). Political diversity will improve social psychological science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, 1-13.

Elliott, D. (1997). Traumatic events: Prevalence and delayed recall in the general population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 811-820.

Feldman-Summers, S. & Pope, K. (1994). The experience of :”forgetting” childhood abuse: A national survey of psychologists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 636-639.

Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2008). Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 32(6), 607-619.

Fischer, C. S., Hout, M., Jankowski, M. S., Luucas, S. R., Swidler, A., and Voss, K.  (1996).  Inequality by Design:  Cracking the Bell Curve myth. Princeton: Princeon Univ. Press.

Gardner, H. (2001).  Cracking open the IQ box [reposted 1995 article].  Retrieved July 29, 2021 from   

Garrett, H. E. (1961).  The equalitarian dogma.  Mankind Quarterly, 1, 106. 

Glass Ceiling Commission.  (1995).  Good for business:  Making full use of the nation’s human capital.  Ann Arbor, MI:  Library of Univ. of Michigan.

Goodman, G. S., Ghetti, S., Quas, J. A., Edlestein, R. S., Alexander, K. W., Redlich, A. D., Cordon, I. M., & Jones, D. P. (2003). A prospective study of memory for child sexual abuse: New findings relevant to the repressed memory controversy. Psychological Science, 14, 113-118.

Gottfredson, L. S.  (1994/1997).  Mainstream science on intelligence:  An editorial with 52 signatories, history and bibliography.  Intelligence, 24, 13-23.

Gottfredson, L. S.  (2009).  Logical fallacies used to dismiss the evidence on intelligence testing.  In R. P. Phelps (ed.), Correcting fallacies about educational and psychological testing (pp. 11-65).  Washington, D. C.:  American Psychological Association.

Grobelny, J.  (2018).  Predictive validity toward job performance of general and specific mental abilities: A validity study across different occupational groups.  Business and Management Studies, 4(3), 1-12.

Haasl, R. J. & Payseur, B. A., (2016).  Fifteen years of genomewide scans for selection:  Trends, lessons, and unaddressed genetic sources of complication.  Molecular Ecol., 25(5), 5-23.

Habermas, J. (1990). Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hamer, D. H.  & Sirota, L. (2000).  Beware the chopstick gene.  Molecular Psychiatry, 5(1), 11-13. 

Handley, L. J., Manica, A., Goudet, J., et al.  (2007).  Going the distance:  Human population genetics in a clinal world.  Trends Genet., 23(9), 432-439.   

Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.

Heckman, J.  (1995).  Cracked Bell.  Reason, March 1, 1995.  Retrieved February 23, 2020 from: 

Herman, J. L., & Harvey, Mr. R. (1997). Adult memories of childhood trauma: A naturalistic clinical study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 557-571.

Herman, J. L., & Hirschman, L. (2000). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Herman, J. L., & Schatzow, E. (1987). Recovery and verification of memories of childhood sexual trauma. Psychiatric Psychology, 4, 1-14.

Herrnstein, R. J. & Murray, C. M.  (1994).  The Bell Curve:  Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life.  New York:  Free Press

Hobfoll, S. E. (1998) Stress, Culture, and Community: The Psychology and Philosophy of Stress. New York: Plenum.

Hobson, A. (1999). The new neuropsychology of sleep: Implications for psychoanalysis. Neuropsychoanalysis: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences, 1(2), 152-183.

Holmes, D. S. (1990). The evidence for repression: An examination of sixty years of research. In J. Singer (Ed.), Repression and Dissociation: Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology and Health (pp. 85-102). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Horn, J. L. & McArdle, J. J.  (2007).  Understanding human intelligence since Spearman. In R. Cudeck & R. MacCallum, (Eds.). Factor Analysis at 100 years (pp. 205–247). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Horowitz, D. (2006). The Professors: The 101 Most Dangerous Academics in America. Washington, D. C.: Regnery Publishing Inc.

Hunt, E.  (2011).  Human intelligence.  New York:  Cambridge University Press. 

Jackson, M. R. (1984). Self-Esteem and Meaning: A Life-Historical Investigation. Albany: SUNY Press.

Jackson, M. R. (1991). Categories of codes. Semiotica, 85, 41-72.

Jackson, M. R. (1994). Godel’s metaphor. Semiotica, 98, 5-48.

Jackson, M. R. (2011). Psychology and social justice. Peace Review, 23, 69-76.

Jackson, M. R. (2015a). Resistance to qual/quant parity: Why the “paradigm” discussion can’t be avoided. Qualitative Psychology, 2(2), 181-198.

Jackson, M. R. (2015b). The purity and impurity of paradigms: Response to Gergen (2015) and Madill (2015). Qualitative Psychology, 2(2), 221-225.

Janis, I. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascos. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Jardina, A. (2019).  White identity politics.  Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Jennings, R. G. & Van Horn, J. D. (2012).  Publication bias in neuroimaging research:  Implications for meta-analyses.  Neuroinformatics, 10(1), 67-80.

Jensen, A. R.  (1969).  How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?  Harvard Educational Review, 39, 1-123.

 Joseph, J.  (2015).  The Trouble with Twin Studies:  A Reassessment of Twin Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.  New York:  Routledge.

Kamin, L. J. (1995). Behind the curve. Scientific American, 272, 99-103.

Kansal, T. & Mauer, M.  (2005).  Racial disparity in sentencing:  A review of the literature.  Retrieved July 20, 2021 from

Kaufman, J. S., Cooper, R. S., & McGee, D. L.  (1997).  Socioeconomic status and health in Blacks and Whites:  The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency or race.  Epidemiology, 8(6), 621-628.

Kelly, J. B. (2000). Children’s adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: A decade review of research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 963-973.

Kendler, K. S. (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: An epidemiological and co-twin analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(10), 953-959.

Kihlstrom, J. H. (2005). Dissociative disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 227-253.

Koch, A. J., D’Mello, S. D., & Sackett, P. R.  (2015).  A metal-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.  J. Appl. Psychol., 100(1), 128-61. 

Kozol, J. (1991). Savage Inequalities: Children in American Schools. New York: HarperCollins.

Langer, N., von Bastian, C. C, Wirz, H., Oberauer, K., & Jancke, L.  (2013).  The effects of working memory training on functional brain network efficiency.  Cortex, XXX, 1-15.

Layzer, D.  (1976).  Science or superstition?  A physical scientist looks at the IQ controversy.  In N. J. Block. & G. Dworkin. (eds.), The IQ controversy:  Critical readings (pp. 194-241), New York: Pantheon Books. 

Letourneau, E., & Lewis, T. (1999). The portrayal of child sexual assault in introductory psychology textbooks. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 253-258.

Lewontin, R. C.  (1970).  Race and intelligence.  Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 26, 2-8.

Lewontin, R. C.  (1972).  The apportionment of human diversity.  Evol. Biol., 6, 381-398.

Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., & Lohr, J. M. (2003). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., Ruscio, J., & Beyerstein, B. L. (2010). 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology: Shattering Widespread Misconceptions about Human Behavior. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

Loevinger, J. (1954). The attenuation paradox in test theory. Psychological Bulletin, 51(5), 493-504.

Loftus, E. F. (1996). The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.

Loftus, E. F., Garry, M., & Feldman, J. (1994). Forgetting sexual trauma: What does it mean when 38% forget? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1177-1181.

Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-589.

Loftus, E. F., & Pickrell, J. E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720-725.

Lord, K. A., Larson, G., Coppinger, R. F., et al.  (2020).  The history of Farm Foxes undermines the animal domestication syndrome.  Trends Ecol. & Evol., 35(3), 125-136. 

Lubek, I. (1979). A brief social psychological analysis of research on aggression in social psychology. In A. R. Bus (Ed.), Psychology in Social Context (pp. 259-306), New York: Irvington.

Lubek, I. (1993). Social psychology textbooks: An historical and social psychological analysis of conceptual filtering, consensus formation, career gatekeeping and conservatism in science. In H. J. Stam, L. P. Mos, W. Thorngate, & B. Kaplan (Eds.), Recent Trends in Theoretical Psychology (pp. 359-378). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Mackintosh, N. J.  (2011).  IQ and Human Intelligence (2nd ed).  New York:  Oxford University Press. 

Madon, S., Jussim, L., Guyll, M., et al.  (2018).  The accumulation of stereotype-based self-fulfilling prophecies.  J. Pers. & Soc. Psych., 115(5), 825-844.

Maher, B. (2008). The case of the missing heritability. Nature 456, 18–21.

Mauer, M. & Cole, D.  (2011).  Five myths about Americans in prison.  Retrieved July 28, 2021 from 

McNally, R. J. (2004). The science and folklore of traumatic amnesia. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 29-33.

Means, B., & Loftus, E. F. (1991). When personal history repeats itself: Decomposing memories for recurring events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 297-318.

Mechanic, M., Resnick, P., & Griffin, M. (1998). A comparison of normal forgetting, psychopathology, and information-processing models of reported amnesia for recent sexual trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 948-957.  (2021).  On Fox Nation, Tucker Carlson and Charles Murray discuss race science and speculate a race war is possible.  Interview/transcription retrieved July 7, 2021 from  

Melchurt, T. (1999). Relations among childhood memory, a history of abuse, dissociation and repression. Journal of interpersonal violence, 14, 1172-1192.

Menand, L.  (2020).  The changing meaning of affirmative action.  Retrieved July 25, 2021, from

Mischel, W.  (2005).  Alternative futures for our science.  APS Observer, March 22, 2005.  Retrieved February 26, 2021 from

Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-378.

Moran, P.A.P.  (1973).  A note on heritability and the correlation between relatives.  Annals of Human Genetics, 37(2), 217.   

Morgan, S. L., & Winship, C. (2015). Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Methods and Principles for Social Research (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Myers, C. D. (2021).  The dynamics of social identity:  Evidence from deliberating groups.  Political Psychology.  Downloaded 7/4/21 from

Myers, D. G. (1996). Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Worth.

Nash, A. & Grossi, G. (2007).  Picking Barbie’s brain:  Inherent differences in scientific ability?  Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought, 2(1), 29-42.

Neapolitan, J. L.  (2008).  Cross-national variations in homicides:  Is race a factor?  Criminology, 36(1), 131-156.

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci, S. J., Halpern, D. F., Loehlin, J. C., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R. J., & Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51(2), 77–101.

Nelson, G., & Prilleltensky, I. (2005). Community Psychology: In Pursuit of Liberation and Well-Being. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nisbett, R. E. (2005). Heredity, environment, and race differences in IQ: A commentary on Rushton and Jensen (2005). Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(2), 302–310.

Nisbett, R. E.  (2009).  Intelligence and how to get it.  New York: Norton.

Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern, D. F., & Turkheimer, E.  (2012).  Intelligence:  New developments and theoretical findings.  The American Psychologist, 67(2), 130-160. 

Nowak, M. (2009, August 7). [Letter from Manfred Nowak, U. N. Special Rapporteur on Torture, to James H. Bray, President of the American Psychological Association]. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from

Phillips, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P., and Crane, J.  (1998).  Family background, parenting practices, and the black-white test score gap.  In C. Jencks and M. Phillips (Eds.), The black-white test score gap (pp. 103-145).   Washington, DC:  Brookings Institution Press.

Pope, H. G., & Hudson, J. I. (1995). Can memories of childhood sexual abuse be repressed? Psychological Medicine, 25, 121-126.

Pridemore, W. A.  (2011).  Poverty matters:  A reassessment of the inequality-homicide relationship in cross-national studies.  British Journal of Criminology.  51(5), 739-772.

Protzko, J.  (2015).  The environment in raising early intelligence:  A meta-analysis of the fadeout effect.  Intelligence, 53, 202-210. 

Rabin, J. F. (2010). Repression. International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Retrieved September 23, 2010 from

Ratner, H., & Shostrum, S. K. (1989). Anxiety: Cognitive Therapy with Dr. Aaron T. Beck. Corona Del Mar, CA: Psychological and Educational Films.

Redding, R. E. (2001). Sociopolitical diversity in psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 205-215.

Richards, G. (1997). ‘Race,’ Racism and Psychology: Towards a Reflexive History. London: Routledge.

Richardson, K. (2017).  Genes, brains, and human potential:  The science and ideology of intelligence.  New York:  Columbia University Press. 

Rind, B., Tromovitch, P., & Bauserman, R. (1998). A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 22-53.

Roedigger, H. L., & Bergman, E. T. (1998). The controversy over recovered memories. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 4, 1091-1109.

Rosenberg, N. A., Mahajan, S., Ramachandran, S., et al.  (2005).  Clines, clusters, and the effect of study design on the inference of human population structure.  PLoS Genetics 1(6), 660-671.

Rosenberg, N. A., Pritchard, J. K. & Weber, J. L.  (2002).  Genetic structure of human populations.  Science, 298 (5602), 2381-2385.

Rutherford, J.  (2015).  Drug offenders in American prisons:  The critical distinction between stock and flow.  Retrieved July 30, 2021 from  

Salter, A. C. (2003). Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, and Other Sex Offenders. New York: Basic Books.

Sauce, B & Matzel, L.  (2018).  The paradox of intelligence:  Heritability and malleability co-exist in hidden gene-environment interplay.  Psych Bulletin., 144(1), 26-47.

Schooler, J. W. (2001). Discovering memories of abuse in the light of meta-awareness. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 4, 105-136.

Shapiro, B. (2010). Brainwashed: How Universities Indoctrinate America’s Youth. Nashville, TN: WND Books.

Shields, A. E., Fortun, M., Hammonds, E. M., King, P. A., Lerman, C., Rapp, R., & Sullivan, P. (2005). The use of race variables in genetic studies of complex traits and the goal of reducing health disparities: A transdisciplinary perspective. American Psychologist, 60, 77-103.

Shriner, D., Tekola-Ayele, F., Adeyemo, A., et al.  (2014).  Genome-wide genotype and sequence-based reconstruction of the 140,000 year history of modern human ancestry.  Scientific Reports, 4, 6055.

Sipps, G. J., Berry, G. W., & Lynch, E. M.  (1987).  WAIS-R and social intelligence: A test of established assumptions that uses the CPI.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 499-504.

Skiba, R. J. & Lossen, D. J.  (2015-2016).  From reaction to prevention:  Turning the page on school discipline.  American Educator, Winter 2015-2016, 4-11, 44. 

Sowell, T. (1994) Race and Culture: A world view. New York: Basic Books.

Sternberg, R. J.  (2019).  A theory of adaptive intelligence and its relation to general intelligence.  Intelligence, 7, 23.

Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., & Kidd, K. K. (2005). Intelligence, race and genetics. American Psychologist, 60, 46-59.

Suedfeld, P., & Tetlock, P. E. (1992). Psychologists as policy advocates: The roots of controversy. In P. Suedfeld & P. E. Tetlock (Eds.), Psychology and Social Policy. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

Summers, F., Eidelson, R., Hunt, R., & Pelton-Cooper, M. (2009, October 26). [Letter to James H. Bray, President of the American Psychological Assoication]. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from

Suzuki, L., & Aronson, J. (2005). The cultural malleability of intelligence and its impact on the racial/ethno hierarchy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 11, 320-327.

Sweeney, C. (2016). How liberal professors are ruining college. Boston Magazine. Retrieved August 30, 2019 from

Szpak, M., Xue, Y., Ayub, Q., et al.  (2019).  How well do we understand the basis of classic selective sweeps in humans?  FEBS Lett, 593, 1431-448. 

Terr, L. C. (1983). Chowchilla revisited: The effects of psychic trauma four years after a school-bus kidnapping. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140(12), 1543-1550.

The Glenn Show (2021).  Facing Reality (Glenn Loury and Charles Murray). Interview retrieved July 7, 2021 from:

Thomas, J. C., Barrett, G. V., & Alexander, R. A.  (1996).  The relationship of specific mental ability measures compared to a general mental ability measure to quality and quantity performance on a clerical job sample.  Journal of Business and Psychology, 11(1), 35-41

Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Friedleander, F. R., et al.  (2009).  The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans.  Science, 324(5930), 1035-1044.

Toulmin, S. (1958). Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Torrey, E. F.  (2019).  Was the Human Genome Project a dud?  Dallas Morning News, October 13, 2019.  Retrieved February 26, 2021 from

Trut, L.  (1999).  Early canid domestication:  The farm-fox experiment.  American Scientist, 87, 160-169.

Tucker, W. H. (1994). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Turkheimer, E.  (2000).  The three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 160-164. 

Turkheimer, E.  (2011).  Commentary:  Variation and causation in the environment and genome.  International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 598–601 

Turkheimer, E.  (2019).  Applied ethics of polygenic scores – director’s cut.  Genetics and Human Agency Blog.  Retrieved February 18, 2020 from

Turkheimer, E., Harden, K. P., & Nisbett, R. E. (2017).  There’s still no good reason to believe black-white IQ differences are due to genes.  Vox, June 17, 2017.  Retrieved February 25, 2021 from 

Turkheimer, E. & Waldron, M.  (2000).  Nonshared environment:  A theoretical, methodological, and quantitative review.  Psych. Bulletin, 126(1), 78-108l

U. S. Department of Defense (2010, December 9). DoD Support to the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG). Directive 5113.13. Retrieved July 10, 2011 from

van der Kolk, B., & Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505-525.

Van Der Maas, H. L. J., Dolan, C. V., Grasman, R. P. P. P., Wicherts, J. M., Huizenga, H. M., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2006). A dynamical model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychological Review, 113(4), 842–861

Wade, C., & Tarvis, C. (2008). Psychology (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Pearson.

Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, J. B. (1980). Surviving the Breakup: How Parents and Children Cope with Divorce. New York: Basic Books.

Wallerstein, J. S., Lewis, J., & Blakeslee, S. (2000). The Unexpected Legacy or Divorce: A 25-Year Landmark Study. New York: Hyperion.

Wang, J.  (2017).  The computer program structure for assigning individuals to populations:  easy to use but easier to misuse.  Mol. Ecol. Resour., 17(5)m 981-990.

Welch, B. W. (2008). Why did APA do it? Psychologist-Psychoanalyst, 28, 9-10.

Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333-371.

Weston, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (1999). Psychoanalytic approaches to personality. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford.

Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollection of childhood victimization, part 2: Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 34-46.

Wiesen, J. P. (2009). Possible reasons for the Black-White mean score differences seen with many cognitive ability tests: Informal notes to file. Retrieved August 1, 2010 from

Williams, L. M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women’s memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1167-1176.

Wilsnack, S., Wonderlich, S., Kristjanson, A., Vogeltanz-Holm, N., & Wilsnack, R. (2002). Self-reports of forgetting and remembering childhood sexual abuse in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 139-147.

Yorke, M.  (2011).  Summative assessment:  Dealing with the ‘measurement fallacy.’  Studies in Higher Education, 36, 251-273.

Yovell, Y., Bannett, Y., & Shalev, A. (2003). Amnesia for traumatic events among recent survivors: A pilot study. CNS Spectrums, 8, 676-685.

Zarefsky, D. (2005). Argumentation: The Study of Effective Reasoning (2nd ed.). Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company.